Baji Rao I the great maratha warrior

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2 Postings, 822 Tage koko890Baji Rao I the great maratha warrior

Bajirao was born into the Bhat family of Kokanastha Chitpavan Brahmin lineage.[5] His father Balaji Vishwanath was the first Peshwa of Chhatrapati Shahu; his mother was Radhabai. Baji Rao had a younger brother Chimaji Appa and two sisters, Bihubai Joshi and Anubai Ghorpade.[6] The eldest of his sisters was married into a Deshastha family.[7] He spent his childhood in his father's newly acquired fiefdom of Saswad.

Bajirao would often accompany his father on military campaigns. He was with his father when the latter was imprisoned by Damaji Thorat before being released for a ransom.[6] When Vishwanath died in 1720, Shahu appointed the 20-year old Baji Rao as the Peshwa.[8] He is said to have preached the ideal of Hindu Pad Padshahi (Hindu Empire),[9]

Bajirao intended to plant the Maratha flag upon the walls of Delhi and other cities governed by the Mughals and their subjects. He intended to replace the Mughal Empire and create a Hindu-Pat-Padshahi.[10]

Early Life as a Peshwa

Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune, it was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Bajirao's reign.
The twenty year old Bajirao was appointed Peshwa in succession to his father by Chhatrapati Shahu. By the time of Baji Rao's appointment, Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah had recognized Marathas' rights over the territories possessed by Shivaji at his death. In 1719, the Mughals had also recognized the Maratha rights to collect taxes (chauth or chauthaii and sardeshmukhi) in the six provinces of Deccan. Bajirao believed that the Mughal Empire was in decline and wanted to take advantage of this situation with aggressive expansion in north India. Sensing the declining fortune of the Mughals, he is reported to have said, "Strike, strike at the roots and the biggest tree will also fall down."[11][12] However, as a new Peshwa, he faced several challenges:[6]These were

His appointment as the Peshwa at a young age had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Naro Ram Mantri, Anant Ram Sumant and Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi. This led Bajirao to promote as commanders young men like himself who were barely out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, and the Pawar brothers. Also, these men did not belong to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under the Deccan Sultanates.[13]
The Mughal viceroy of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, had practically created his own independent kingdom in the region. He challenged Shahu's right to collect taxes in Deccan [14]on the pretext that he did not know whether Shahu or his cousin Sambhaji II of Kolhapur were the rightful heir to the Maratha throne.[6]
The Marathas needed to assert their rights over the nobles of the newly gained territories in Malwa and Gujarat[6]
Several areas that were nominally part of the Maratha territory, were not actually under Peshwa's control. For example, the Siddis controlled the Janjira fort.[6]
Campaigns
Campaign against the Nizam
On January 4, 1721, Baji Rao met Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I at Chikhalthan to settle their disputes through agreement. However, Nizam refused to recognize the Maratha rights to collect taxes from the Deccan provinces.[6] Nizam was made Vizier of Mughal Empire in 1721 , but alarmed at his growing power, emperor Muhammad Shah transferred him from Deccan to Awadh in 1723. Nizam rebelled against the order, resigned as the Vizier and marched towards Deccan. The emperor sent an army against him, which the Nizam defeated in the Battle of Sakhar-kheda. In response, Mughal emperor was forced to recognize him as the viceroy of Deccan. The Marathas, led by Bajirao, helped Nizam win this battle. In fact, for his bravery in the battle, Baji Rao was honored with a robe, a mansabdari of 7,000, an elephant and a jewel. After the battle, Nizam tried to appease both the Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu as well as the Mughal emperor. However, in reality, he wanted to carve out a sovereign kingdom and considered the Marathas his rivals in the Deccan.[15]

In 1725, Nizam sent an army to clear out the Maratha revenue collectors from the Carnatic region. The Marathas dispatched a force under Fateh Singh Bhosle to counter him; Baji Rao accompanied Bhosle, but did not command the army. The Marathas were forced to retreat. They launched a second campaign after the monsoon season, but once again, they were unable to prevent the Nizam from ousting the Maratha collectors.[14]

Meanwhile, in Deccan, Sambhaji II of Kolhapur State had become a rival claimant to the title of the Maratha Chhatrapati. Nizam took advantage of this dispute among the Marathas. He refused to pay the chauth or sardeshmukhi on the grounds that it was unclear who was the real Chhatrapati: Shahu or Sambhaji II (and therefore, to whom the payment needed to be made). Nizam offered to act as an arbitrator in this dispute. At the court of Shahu, Nizam's spokesman was Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, a Deshastha Brahmin and a rival of Bajirao(who was a Chitpavan Brahmin). At the court of Sambhaji II, his supporter was Chandrasen Jadhav, who had fought Bajirao's father a decade earlier. Bajirao convinced Shahu not to accept Nizam's arbitration offer and instead launch an assault against him.[14]

On August 27, 1727, Baji Rao started a march against Nizam. He raided and plundered several of Nizam's territories, such as Jalna, Burhanpur and Khandesh. While Bajirao was away, Nizam invaded Pune, where he installed Sambhaji II as Chhatrapati. He then marched out of the city, leaving behind a contingent headed by Fazal Beg. On February 28, 1728, the armies of Bajirao and Nizam faced each other at the Battle of Palkhed. Nizam was defeated and forced to make peace. On March 6, he signed the Treaty of Mungi Shevgaon, recognizing Shahu as the Chhatrapati as well as the Maratha right to collect taxes in Deccan.[6]

Baji Rao moved his base of operations from Saswad to Pune in 1728 and in the process laid the foundation for turning what was a kasba into a large city.[16] Bajirao also started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city.

Malwa campaign  
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09.04.18 02:18

2 Postings, 822 Tage koko890Baji Rao I the great maratha warrior 2

Bajirao was born into the Bhat family of Kokanastha Chitpavan Brahmin lineage.[5] His father Balaji Vishwanath was the first Peshwa of Chhatrapati Shahu; his mother was Radhabai. Baji Rao had a younger brother Chimaji Appa and two sisters, Bihubai Joshi and Anubai Ghorpade.[6] The eldest of his sisters was married into a Deshastha family.[7] He spent his childhood in his father's newly acquired fiefdom of Saswad.

Bajirao would often accompany his father on military campaigns. He was with his father when the latter was imprisoned by Damaji Thorat before being released for a ransom.[6] When Vishwanath died in 1720, Shahu appointed the 20-year old Baji Rao as the Peshwa.[8] He is said to have preached the ideal of Hindu Pad Padshahi (Hindu Empire),[9]

Bajirao intended to plant the Maratha flag upon the walls of Delhi and other cities governed by the Mughals and their subjects. He intended to replace the Mughal Empire and create a Hindu-Pat-Padshahi.[10]

Early Life as a Peshwa

Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune, it was built as the seat of the Peshwa rulers during Bajirao's reign.
The twenty year old Bajirao was appointed Peshwa in succession to his father by Chhatrapati Shahu. By the time of Baji Rao's appointment, Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah had recognized Marathas' rights over the territories possessed by Shivaji at his death. In 1719, the Mughals had also recognized the Maratha rights to collect taxes (chauth or chauthaii and sardeshmukhi) in the six provinces of Deccan. Bajirao believed that the Mughal Empire was in decline and wanted to take advantage of this situation with aggressive expansion in north India. Sensing the declining fortune of the Mughals, he is reported to have said, "Strike, strike at the roots and the biggest tree will also fall down."[11][12] However, as a new Peshwa, he faced several challenges:[6]These were

His appointment as the Peshwa at a young age had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Naro Ram Mantri, Anant Ram Sumant and Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi. This led Bajirao to promote as commanders young men like himself who were barely out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, and the Pawar brothers. Also, these men did not belong to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under the Deccan Sultanates.[13]
The Mughal viceroy of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, had practically created his own independent kingdom in the region. He challenged Shahu's right to collect taxes in Deccan [14]on the pretext that he did not know whether Shahu or his cousin Sambhaji II of Kolhapur were the rightful heir to the Maratha throne.[6]
The Marathas needed to assert their rights over the nobles of the newly gained territories in Malwa and Gujarat[6]
Several areas that were nominally part of the Maratha territory, were not actually under Peshwa's control. For example, the Siddis controlled the Janjira fort.[6]
Campaigns
Campaign against the Nizam
On January 4, 1721, Baji Rao met Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I at Chikhalthan to settle their disputes through agreement. However, Nizam refused to recognize the Maratha rights to collect taxes from the Deccan provinces.[6] Nizam was made Vizier of Mughal Empire in 1721 , but alarmed at his growing power, emperor Muhammad Shah transferred him from Deccan to Awadh in 1723. Nizam rebelled against the order, resigned as the Vizier and marched towards Deccan. The emperor sent an army against him, which the Nizam defeated in the Battle of Sakhar-kheda. In response, Mughal emperor was forced to recognize him as the viceroy of Deccan. The Marathas, led by Bajirao, helped Nizam win this battle. In fact, for his bravery in the battle, Baji Rao was honored with a robe, a mansabdari of 7,000, an elephant and a jewel. After the battle, Nizam tried to appease both the Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu as well as the Mughal emperor. However, in reality, he wanted to carve out a sovereign kingdom and considered the Marathas his rivals in the Deccan.[15]

In 1725, Nizam sent an army to clear out the Maratha revenue collectors from the Carnatic region. The Marathas dispatched a force under Fateh Singh Bhosle to counter him; Baji Rao accompanied Bhosle, but did not command the army. The Marathas were forced to retreat. They launched a second campaign after the monsoon season, but once again, they were unable to prevent the Nizam from ousting the Maratha collectors.[14]

Meanwhile, in Deccan, Sambhaji II of Kolhapur State had become a rival claimant to the title of the Maratha Chhatrapati. Nizam took advantage of this dispute among the Marathas. He refused to pay the chauth or sardeshmukhi on the grounds that it was unclear who was the real Chhatrapati: Shahu or Sambhaji II (and therefore, to whom the payment needed to be made). Nizam offered to act as an arbitrator in this dispute. At the court of Shahu, Nizam's spokesman was Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, a Deshastha Brahmin and a rival of Bajirao(who was a Chitpavan Brahmin). At the court of Sambhaji II, his supporter was Chandrasen Jadhav, who had fought Bajirao's father a decade earlier. Bajirao convinced Shahu not to accept Nizam's arbitration offer and instead launch an assault against him.[14]

On August 27, 1727, Baji Rao started a march against Nizam. He raided and plundered several of Nizam's territories, such as Jalna, Burhanpur and Khandesh. While Bajirao was away, Nizam invaded Pune, where he installed Sambhaji II as Chhatrapati. He then marched out of the city, leaving behind a contingent headed by Fazal Beg. On February 28, 1728, the armies of Bajirao and Nizam faced each other at the Battle of Palkhed. Nizam was defeated and forced to make peace. On March 6, he signed the Treaty of Mungi Shevgaon, recognizing Shahu as the Chhatrapati as well as the Maratha right to collect taxes in Deccan.[6]

Baji Rao moved his base of operations from Saswad to Pune in 1728 and in the process laid the foundation for turning what was a kasba into a large city.[16] Bajirao also started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city.

Malwa campaign  

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